Every PhD student is required to follow courses for a total of 18 CFUs, 6 of which must be for soft and complementary skills. Students are warmly encouraged to accumulate 12 CFUs in the first year and 6 CFUs in the second. The LENS PhD school organises four courses, 3 CFU each. It is mandatory for all students to attend: (1) one module of Imaging and microscopy, (2) Spectroscopy, (3) Light-matter interaction, and (4) Science communication (preferably during the first year). Other courses can be chosen among those organised by the Department of Physics and Chemistry.

According to the definition adopted by the University of Florence, one CFU corresponds to 25 hours of total work, including both frontal lectures and individual study. With the advancement of the student's education, the weight shifts toward individual study so that, at the graduate level, one CFU is assigned for four hours of frontal lectures and 21 hours of individual study.

By December of the first year, every student shall submit their study plan with the courses chosen for the three years. Each study plan shall undergo the approval of the Teaching Committee, after hearing the student’s Tutor.

At the end of each course, the students shall pass an examination; modalities of the examination will be agreed by the Teaching Committee and by the course teacher(s).


Courses at LENS in 2023-2024

Scientific writing* (3 CFU), G. Santambrogio

Beginning in November 2023

Microscopy and Imaging (basics) (3 CFU), R. Cicchi

Beginning in spring 2024


Light-matter interaction (3 CFU), A. Zavatta

Beginning to be announced

Science communication* (3 CFU), G. Santambrogio and C. Sias

Beginning in late winter 2024


Python for data analysis (3 CFU), G. Mazzamuto and A. Scaglione

Beginning in spring 2024


Smart Polymers for photonics and medicine (2 CFU), D. Martella and C. Parmeggiani

Beginning in January 2024


Courses at LENS in 2025

Microscopy and Imaging (advanced) (3 CFU), R. Cicchi
Spectroscopy (3 CFU), P. Foggi
Science communication* (3 CFU), G. Santambrogio and C. Sias

*Course valid for “soft and complementary skills”